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All You Need to Know About Aircraft Fuel Injectors

by Logan Smith - 12 Oct 2022, Wednesday 196 Views Like (0)
All You Need to Know About Aircraft Fuel Injectors

Fuel injectors are responsible for direct or indirect fuel delivery to the fuel tank. These are the basic tools present in a diesel engine. The injectors are usually found in the inlet manifold in case of indirect delivery and at the inlet of the cylinder in case of direct delivery.


The fuel is delivered by the injectors in the form of a pressurized common rail that sprays the fuel in a combustion chamber. However, the operation of fuel spray is controlled by an electronic system so that the exact quantity of fuel is delivered after an equal interval of time.


Additionally, the electronic fuel injection system prevents fuel wastage by controlling fuel consumption. Along with that, it can increase fuel efficiency by limiting the level of contamination in the fuel.


In this article, we will describe the details of the functionalities, operations, and types of fuel injection. 


Functionalities

Fuel injectors are made with highly durable materials so they can resist higher pressure inside the engine. The fuel injector's primary purpose is to deliver the fuel to the cylinders through high injection pressures. Moreover, the injectors can increase engine performance and reduce noise problems.


Operations Of Major Parts

The fuel injection system is commonly divided into low-pressure parts including aircraft fuel material like fuel tank, fuel filter, and fuel supply pump whereas, whereas high-pressure parts include a fuel injector, accumulator, and fuel injector nozzles.  

 

The low-pressure injector system is responsible for transferring the fuel however, the high-pressure injector system works to transfer the fuel into the combustion system.


Moreover, a fuel tank is used to store the fuel which is then pumped to the injection system using a specialized fuel pump. Additionally, an injection pump is attached to the fuel injection system to control the oil through a meter and pressurize the fuel for injection. 


After pressurizing the fuel it is supplied to the cylinder using the injection pump. Besides all these parts the most important part of the injection system is the fuel filter which helps in removing contamination from the fuel and supplies purified fuel to the system.


Types Of Fuel Injection System

Single Point Injection

Single point injection is the simplest form of injection system which handles the whole process using one or two injector nozzles attached to the throttle body of the engine air intake manifold.


Although this injector system is not as exact as the one that came after it, it has greater control, is more affordable, and is simpler to maintain when compared to carburetors.


Multiport Fuel Injection

Multiport fuel injection is also known as a port injector, this type of injector has a nozzle an inside each cylinder which is used to shoot the fuel vapors.  


The multiport fuel injection is more efficient than the single port as the fuel is measured with more accuracy. Additionally, it is ideal for obtaining the necessary fuel-air ratios as it prevents the chance of fuel condensation or accumulation during the air intake.


Sequential Fuel Injection

Sequential fuel injection is also known as time injection. This is a type of multiport injection system which sprays the fuel droplets in a sequence. As a result of sequential fuel injection, the system will respond more quickly to new changes. 


Direct Injection

Direct injection is the most commonly used injection process for gasoline engine designs. It is most commonly called direct injection gasoline. This direct process is used to inject the fuel directly into the combustion chamber using fuel metering.


Furthermore, the fuel metering is more accurate in the direct injection process due to which the engineers can easily detect the overall process of combustion, the process of air-fuel combination inside the cylinders, and the way explosion travels from the ignition unit.


In the direct injection process, the engine handles all aspects related to port, spark, timing, and intensity of a spark.


Working Principle

The working of the fuel injector system is to transfer the fuel from the fuel injector to the combustion chamber by getting the fuel from the fuel tank. Additionally, the fuel injector uses electric power to work on mechanical principles for spraying fuel.


To clarify, the injector uses an electromagnet that moves to operate a plunger to open the valves that will be used to spray the fuel through a nozzle. 


However, the duration for which the valves will stay open depends on the total amount of time the fuel is supplied to the engine.


Conclusion

Fuel injectors are used for the transmission of precise fuel mixtures by maintaining maximum efficiency and power production. Moreover, the injector transmission ensures an efficient fuel injection in the engine. 


Fuel injection systems discussed in the article are famous among aviation engineers for their durability and economical maintenance requirements.


Moreover, professional aviation service providers prefer this fuel injection method because it can balance the air-fuel mixture according to the environmental conditions.